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Subpart A--General
16.101 Purpose of regulations.
16.105 Definitions of terms used in this part.
16.107 Waivers.
16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).
16.113 Chemical drug testing.
16.115 Penalties.

Subpart B - Required Chemical Testing
16.201 Application.
16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities
16.205 Implementation of chemical testing programs.
16.207 [Removed]
16.210 Pre-employment testing requirements.
16.220 Periodic testing requirements.
16.230 Random testing requirements.
16.240 Serious marine incident testing requirements.
16.250 Reasonable cause testing requirements.
16.260 Records.

Subpart C - [Removed and Reserved]

Subpart D - Employee Assistance Programs
16.401 Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

Subpart E - Management Information System
16.500 Management Information System requirements.

Appendix A To Part 16 - [Reserved]

Appendix B To Part 16 (PDF) - Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection

Appendix C To Part 16 - [Removed and Reserved]

Authority: 46 U.S.C. 2103, 3306, 7101, 7301, and 7701; 49 CFR 1.46.

Authority: 46 U.S.C. 2103, 3306, 7101, 7301, and 7701; 49 CFR 1.46.


Subpart A - General
16.101 Purpose of Regulations.
(a) The regulations in this part provide a means to minimize the use of intoxicants by merchant marine personnel and to promote a drug free and safe work environment.
(b) These regulations prescribe the minimum standards, procedures, and means to be used to test for the use of dangerous drugs.
(c) As part of a reasonable cause drug testing program established pursuant to this part, employers may test for drugs in addition to those specified in this part only with approval granted by the Coast Guard under 49 CFR Part 40 and for substances for which the Department of Health and Human Services has established an approved testing protocol and positive threshold.


16.105 Definitions of Terms Used in This Part
Chemical test means a scientifically recognized test which analyzes an individual’s breath, blood, urine, saliva, bodily fluids, or tissues for evidence of dangerous drug or alcohol use.

Consortium/Third party administrator (C/TPA) means a service agent who provides or coordinates the provision of a variety of drug and alcohol testing services to employers. C/TPAs typically perform administrative tasks concerning the operation of the employers' drug and alcohol testing programs. This term includes, but is not limited to, groups of employers who join together to administer, as a single entity, the DOT drug and alcohol testing programs of its members.

Crewmember means an individual who is:
(a) On board a vessel acting under the authority of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner’s document issued under this subchapter, whether or not the individual is a member of the vessel’s crew; or
(b) Engaged or employed on board a vessel owned in the United States that is required by law or regulation to engage, employ, or be operated by an individual holding a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner’s document issued under this subchapter,
except the following:
(1) Individuals on fish processing vessels who are primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products, or in a support position, and who have no duties that directly affect the safe operation of the vessel;
(2) Scientific personnel on an oceanographic research vessel;
(3) Individuals on industrial vessels who are industrial personnel, as defined in this chapter; and
(4) Individuals not required under part 15 of this subchapter who have no duties that directly affect the safe operation of the vessel.

Dangerous drug means a narcotic drug, a controlled substance, or a controlled-substance analog (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)).

Drug test means a chemical test of an individual’s urine for evidence of dangerous drug use.

Employer means a marine employer or sponsoring organization.

Fails a chemical test for dangerous drugs means that the result of a chemical test conducted in accordance with 49 CFR 40 was reported as “positive” by a Medical Review Officer because the chemical test indicated the presence of a dangerous drug at a level equal to or exceeding the levels established in 49 CFR part 40.

Marine employer means the owner, managing operator, charterer, agent, master, or person in charge of a vessel, other than a recreational vessel.

Medical Review Officer (MRO) means a person who is a licensed physician and who is responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results generated by an employer's drug testing program and evaluating medical explanations for certain drug test results.

Operation means to navigate, steer, direct, manage, or sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain the vessel’s main or auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation
includes:
(a) Determining the vessel’s position, piloting, directing the vessel along a desired trackline, keeping
account of the vessel’s progress through the water, ordering or executing changes in course, rudder position, or speed, and maintaining a lookout;
(b) Controlling, operating, monitoring, maintaining, or testing: the vessel’s propulsion and steering systems; electric power generators; bilge, ballast, fire, and cargo pumps; deck machinery including winches, windlasses, and lifting equipment; lifesaving equipment and appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation and communication equipment; and
(c) Mooring, anchoring, and line handling; loading or discharging of cargo or fuel; assembling or disassembling of tows; and maintaining the vessel’s stability and watertight integrity.

Passes a chemical test for dangerous drugs means the result of a chemical test conducted in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40 is reported as “negative” by a Medical Review Officer in accordance with that part.

Positive rate means the number of positive results for random drug tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals to take random tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random drug tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals to take random tests required by this part.

Refuse to submit means you refused to take a drug test as set out in 49 CFR 40.191.

Serious marine incident means an event defined in 46 CFR 4.03-2.

Service agent means any person or entity that provides services specified under this part or 49 CFR part 40 to employers and/or crewmembers in connection with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements. This includes, but is not limited to, collectors, BATs and STTs, laboratories, MROs, substance abuse professionals, and C/TPAs. To act as service agents, persons and organizations must meet the qualifications set forth in applicable sections of 49 CFR part 40. Service agents are not employers for purposes of this part.

Sponsoring organization is any company, consortium, corporation, association, union, or other organization with which individuals serving in the marine industry, or their employers, are associated.

Stand-down means the practice of temporarily removing a crewmember from the performance of safety-sensitive functions based only on a report from a laboratory to the MRO of a confirmed positive test for a drug or drug metabolite, an adulterated test, or a substituted test, before the MRO has completed verification of the test result.

Substance Abuse Professional (SAP) means a person who evaluates employees who have violated a DOT drug and alcohol regulation and makes recommendations concerning education, treatment, follow-up testing, and aftercare.

Vessel owned in the United States means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and any vessel owned by a citizen of the United States that is not documented or numbered by any nation.


Sec. 16.107 Waivers.
(a) To obtain a waiver from 49 CFR 40.21 or from this part you must send your request for a waiver to the Commandant (G-MOA).
(b) Employers for whom compliance with this part would violate the domestic laws or policies of another country may request an exemption from the drug testing requirements of this part by submitting a written request to Commandant (G-MOA), at the address listed in Sec. 16.500(a).
(c) An employer may request a waiver from the Coast Guard in order to stand-down a crewmember following the Medical Review Officer's receipt of a laboratory report of a confirmed positive test for a drug or drug metabolite, an adulterated test, or a substituted test pertaining to the crewmember. Consistent with 49 CFR 40.21, the request for a waiver must include as a minimum: information about the organization and the proposed written company policy concerning stand--down. Specific elements required in the written waiver request are contained in 49 CFR 40.21(c).


Sec. 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).
Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes from participation in DOT's drug and alcohol testing program any service agent who, by serious noncompliance with this part or with 49 CFR part 40, has shown that it is not currently acting in a responsible manner.


16.113 Chemical drug testing.
(a) Drug testing programs required by this part must be conducted in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Procedures for Transportation Workplace Testing Programs. This subpart summarizes the responsibilities of documented and licensed mariners, marine employers, MRO, SAP and other chemical testing service providers in 49 CFR part 40. The regulations in 49 CFR part 40 should be consulted to determine the specific procedures which must be established and utilized. Drug
testing programs required by this part must use only drug testing laboratories certified by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).
(b) Each specimen collected in accordance with this part will be
tested, as provided in 49 CFR 40.85, for the following:
(1) Marijuana;
(2) Cocaine;
(3) Opiates;
(4) Phencyclidine (PCP); and
(5) Amphetamines.


Sec. 16.115 Penalties.
Violation of this part is subject to the civil penalties set forth in 46 U.S.C. 2115. Any person who fails to implement or conduct, or who otherwise fails to comply with the requirements for chemical testing for dangerous drugs as prescribed under this part, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation will constitute a separate violation.


Subpart B - Required Chemical Testing
16.201 Application.
(a) Chemical testing of personnel must be conducted as required by this subpart and in accordance with the procedures detailed in 49 CFR part 40.
(b) If an individual fails a chemical test for dangerous drugs under this part, the individual will be presumed to be a user of dangerous drugs.
(c) If an individual holding a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner's document fails a chemical test for dangerous drugs, the individual's employer, prospective employer, or sponsoring organization must report the test results in writing to the nearest Coast Guard Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI). The individual must be denied employment as a crewmember or must be removed from duties which directly affect the safe operation of the vessel as soon as practicable and is subject to suspension and revocation proceedings against his or her license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner's document under 46 CFR part 5.
(d) If an individual who does not hold a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner’s document fails a chemical test for dangerous drugs, the individual shall be denied employment as a crewmember or removed from duties which directly affect the safe operation of the vessel as soon as possible.
(e) An individual who has failed a required chemical test for dangerous drugs may not be re-employed aboard a vessel until the
requirements of paragraph (f) of this section and 46 CFR Part 5, if applicable, have been satisfied.
(f) Before an individual who has failed a required chemical test for dangerous drugs may return to work aboard a vessel, the MRO must determine that the individual is drug-free and the risk of subsequent use of dangerous drugs by that person is sufficiently low to justify his or her return to work. In addition, the individual must agree to be subject to increased unannounced testing--
(1) For a minimum of six (6) tests in the first year after the individual returns to work as required in 49 CFR part 40; and
(2) For any additional period as determined by the MRO up to a total of 60 months.


Sec. 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.
(a) Employers.
(1) Employers must ensure that they and their crewmembers meet the requirements of this part.
(2) Employers are responsible for all the actions of their officials, representatives, and agents in carrying out the requirements of this part.
(3) All agreements and arrangements, written or unwritten, between and among employers and service agents concerning the implementation of DOT drug testing requirements are deemed, as a matter of law, to require compliance with all applicable provisions of this part and DOT agency drug testing regulations. Compliance with these provisions is a material term of all such agreements and arrangements.
(b) Medical Review Officer (MRO).
(1) Individuals performing MRO functions must meet the training requirements and follow the procedures in 49 CFR Part 40.
(2) MROs may report chemical drug test results to the Coast Guard for unemployed, self-employed, or individual mariners.
(c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements and follow the procedures in 49 CFR Part 40.


Sec. 16.205 Implementation of Chemical Testing Programs.
(a) Each employer who employs more than 50 employees required to be tested under this part was required to implement the pre-employment testing program required by this part not later than July 21, 1989, and the serious marine incident and reasonable cause testing programs required by this part not later than December 21, 1989. The random testing program required by this part shall be implemented not later than October 1, 1991.
(b) Each employer who employs from 11 to 50 employees required to be tested under this part was required to implement the pre-employment, serious marine incident and reasonable cause testing programs required by this part not later than December 21, 1989. The random testing program required by this part shall be implemented not later than October 1, 1991.
(c) Each employer who employs 10 or fewer employees required to be tested under this part was required to implement the pre-employment, serious marine incident and reasonable cause testing programs required by this part not later than December 21, 1990. The random testing program required by this part shall be implemented not later than October 1, 1991.
(d) [Reserved]
(e) The periodic testing requirements of 16.220 apply to physical examinations performed after December 21, 1990.
(f) When a vessel owned in the United States is operating in waters that are not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, the testing requirements of 16.210 and 16.230 do not apply to a citizen of a foreign country engaged or employed as pilot in accordance with the laws or customs of that foreign country.
(g) Upon written request of an employer, Commandant (G-MMMI) will review the employer’s chemical testing program to determine compliance with the provisions of this part.
[CGD 90-014, 56 FR 60930, Nov. 30, 1991]


16.210 Pre-employment Testing Requirements.
(a) No marine employer shall engage or employ any individual to serve as a crewmember unless the individual passes a chemical test for dangerous drugs for that employer.
(b) An employer may waive a pre-employment test required for a job applicant by paragraph (a) of this section if the individual provides satisfactory evidence that he or she has:
(1) Passed a chemical test for dangerous drugs, required by this part, within the previous six months with no subsequent positive drug tests during the remainder of the six-month period; or
(2) During the previous 185 days been subject to a random testing program required by 16.230 for at least 60 days and did not fail or refuse to participate in a chemical test for dangerous drugs required by this part. [CGD 90-053, 58 FR 31107, May 28, 1993]


16.220 Periodic Testing Requirements.
(a) Except as provided by paragraph (c) of this section, and 10.209(h) and 12.02-9(f) of this subchapter, an applicant for an original issuance or a renewal of a license or a certificate of registry (COR), a raise in grade of a license, a higher grade of COR, an original issuance of a merchant mariner’s document (MMD), the first endorsement as an able seaman, lifeboatman, qualified member of the engine department, or tankerman, or a reissuance of an MMD with a new expiration date shall be required to pass a chemical test for dangerous drugs. The applicant shall provide the results of the test to the Coast Guard Regional Examination Center (REC) at the time of submitting an application. The test results must be completed and dated not more than 185 days prior to submission of the application.
(b) Unless excepted under paragraph (c) of this section, each pilot required by this subchapter to receive an annual physical examination must pass a chemical test for dangerous drugs as a part of that examination. The individual shall provide the results of each test required by this section to the REC when the pilot applies for a license renewal or when requested by the Coast Guard.
(c) An applicant need not submit evidence of passing a chemical test for dangerous drugs required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section if he or she provides satisfactory evidence that he or she has-
(1) Passed a chemical test for dangerous drugs required by this part within the previous six months with no subsequent positive chemical tests during the remainder of the 6-month period; or
(2) During the previous 185 days been subject to a random testing program required by 16.230 for at least 60 days and did not fail or refuse to participate in a chemical test for dangerous drugs required by this part.
(d) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an applicant is required to provide the results of only one chemical test for dangerous drugs when multiple transactions are covered by or requested in a single application.
[CGD 86-067, 53 FR 47079, Nov. 21, 1988, as amended by CGD 90-053, 58 FR 31107, May 28, 1993]


16.230 Random Testing Requirements.
(a) Marine employers shall establish programs for the chemical testing for dangerous drugs on a random basis of crewmembers on inspected vessels who:
(1) Occupy a position, or perform the duties and functions of a position, required by the vessel’s Certificate of Inspection;
(2) Perform the duties and functions of patrolmen or watchmen required by this chapter; or,
(3) Are specifically assigned the duties of warning, mustering, assembling, assisting, or controlling the movement of passengers during emergencies.
(b) Marine employers shall establish programs for the chemical testing for dangerous drugs on a random basis of crewmembers on uninspected vessels who:
(1) Are required by law or regulation to hold a license issued by the Coast Guard in order to perform their duties on the vessel;
(2) Perform duties and functions directly related to the safe operation of the vessel;
(3) Perform the duties and functions of patrolmen or watchmen required by this chapter; or,
(4) Are specifically assigned the duties of warning, mustering, assembling, assisting, or controlling the movement of passengers during emergencies.
(c) The selection of crewmembers for random drug testing shall be made by a scientifically valid method, such as a random number table or a computer-based random number generator that is matched with crewmembers’ Social Security numbers , payroll identification numbers, or other comparable identifying numbers. Under the testing frequency and selection process used, each covered crewmember shall have an equal chance of being tested each time selections are made and an employee’s chance of selection shall continue to exist throughout his or her employment. As an alternative, random selection may be accomplished by periodically selecting one or more vessels and testing all crewmembers covered by this section, provided that each vessel subject to the marine employer’s test program remains equally subject to selection.
(d) Marine employers may form or otherwise use sponsoring organizations, or may use contractors, to conduct the random chemical testing programs required by this part.
(e) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing shall be 50 percent of covered crewmembers.
(f) The annual rate for random drug testing may be adjusted in accordance with this paragraph.
(1) The Commandant’s decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is based on the reported random positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from the drug MIS reports required by this part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the Commandant considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports from marine employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry random positive rate. Each year, the Commandant will publish in the Federal Register the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing of covered crewmembers. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year following publication.
(2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is 50 percent, the Commandant may lower this rate to 25 percent of all covered crewmembers if the Commandant determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of 46 CFR 16.500 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the positive rate is less than 1.0 percent.
(3) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is 25 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of 46 CFR 16.500 for any calendar year indicate that the positive rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the Commandant will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing to 50 percent of all covered crewmembers.
(g) Marine employers shall randomly select a sufficient number of covered crewmembers for testing during each calendar year to equal an annual rate not less than the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing determined by the Commandant. If the marine employer conducts random drug testing through a consortium, the number of crewmembers to be tested may be calculated for each individual marine employer or may be based on the total number of covered crewmembers covered by the consortium who are subject to random drug testing at the same minimum annual percentage rate under this part or any DOT drug testing rule.
(h) Each marine employer shall ensure that random drug tests conducted under this part are unannounced and that the dates for administering random tests are spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.
(i) If a given covered crewmember is subject to random drug testing under the drug testing rules of more than one DOT agency for the same marine employer, the crewmember shall be subject to random drug testing at the percentage rate established for the calendar year by the DOT agency regulating more than 50 percent of the crewmember’s function.
(j) If a marine employer is required to conduct random drug testing under the drug testing rules of more than one DOT agency, the marine employer may-
(1) Establish separate pools for random selection, with each pool containing the covered crewmembers who are subject to testing at the same required rate; or
(2) Randomly select such crewmembers for testing at the highest percentage rate established for the calendar year by any DOT agency to which the marine employer is subject.
[CGD 90-014, 56 FR 31034, July 8, 1991]


16.240 Serious Marine Incident Testing Requirements.
The marine employer shall ensure that all persons directly involved in a serious marine incident are chemically tested for evidence of dangerous drugs and alcohol in accordance with the requirements of 46 CFR 4.06.


16.250 Reasonable Cause Testing Requirements.
(a) The marine employer shall require any crewmember engaged or employed on board a vessel owned in the United States that is required by law or regulation to engage, employ or be operated by an individual holding a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner’s document issued under this subchapter, who is reasonably suspected of using a dangerous drug to be chemically tested for dangerous drugs.
(b) The marine employer’s decision to test must be based on a reasonable and articulable belief that the individual has used a dangerous drug based on direct observation of specific, contemporaneous physical, behavioral, or performance indicators of probable use. Where practicable, this belief should be based on the observation of the individual by two persons in supervisory positions.
(c) When the marine employer requires testing of an individual under the provisions of this section, the individual must be informed of that fact and directed to provide a urine specimen as soon as practicable. This fact shall be entered in the vessel’s official log book, if one is required.
(d) If an individual refuses to provide a urine specimen when directed to do so by the employer under the provisions of this section, this fact shall be entered in the vessel’s official log book, if one is required.


16.260 Records.
(a) Employers must maintain records of chemical tests as provided in 49 CFR 40.333 and must make these records available to Coast Guard officials upon request.
(b) The records shall be sufficient to: 3/24/95
(1) Satisfy the requirements of 16.210(b) and 16.220(c) of this part.
(2) Identify the total number of individuals chemically tested annually for dangerous drugs in each of the categories of testing required by this part including the annual number of individuals failing chemical tests and the number and types of drugs for which individuals tested positive.


Subpart C - [Removed and Reserved]


Subpart D - Employee Assistance Programs
16.401 Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
The employer shall provide an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) for all crewmembers. The employer may establish the EAP as a part of its internal personnel services or the employer may contract with an entity that will provide EAP services to a crewmember. Each EAP must include education and training on drug use for crewmembers and the employer’s supervisory personnel as provided below:
(a) EAP education program: Each EAP education program must include at least the following elements: display and distribution of informational material; display and distribution of a community service hot-line telephone number for crewmember assistance, and display and distribution of the employer’s policy regarding drug and alcohol use in the workplace.
(b) EAP training program: An EAP training program must be conducted for the employer’s crewmembers and supervisory personnel. The training program must include at least the following elements: the effects and consequences of drug and alcohol use on personal health, safety, and work environment; the manifestations and behavioral cues that may indicate drug and alcohol use and abuse; and documentation of training given to crewmembers and the employer’s supervisory personnel. Supervisory personnel must receive at least 60 minutes of training.


Subpart E - Management Information System
16.500 Management Information System Requirements.
(a) Data collection. All marine employers must collect the following drug and alcohol testing program data for each calendar year:
(1) Total number of employees during the calendar year, that were subject to the drug testing rules in this part.
(2) Number of employees subject to testing under the anti-drug rules of both the Coast Guard and another DOT agency based on the nature of their assigned duties as identified by each agency.
(3) Number of drug and alcohol tests conducted identified by test type. Drug test types are pre-employment, periodic, random, post-accident, and reasonable cause. Alcohol test types are post-accident and reasonable cause.
(4) Number of positive drug test results verified by a Medical Review Officer (MRO) by test type and types of drug(s). Number of alcohol tests resulting in a blood alcohol concentration weight of .04 percent or more by test type.
(5) Number of negative drug and alcohol test results reported by MRO by test type.
(6) Number of applicants denied employment based on a positive drug test result verified by an MRO,
(7) Number of marine employees with a MRO-verified positive test result who returned to duty in a safety-sensitive position subject to required chemical testing, after meeting the requirements of § 16.370(d) and part 5 of this chapter.
(8) Number of marine employees with positive drug test results verified by a MRO as positive for one drug or a combination of drugs.
(9) Number of employees required under this part to be tested who refused to submit to a drug test.
(10) Number of covered employees and supervisory personnel who received the required initial training.
(b) Data reporting.
(1) By March 15 of the year following the collection of the data in paragraph (a) of this section, marine employers must submit the data on Form CG-5573 to Commandant (G-MOA), 2100 Second Street, SW, Washington. DC, 20593-0001. Marine employers must complete all data fields on the form.
(2) Form CG—5573 is reproduced in Appendix B of this part and you may obtain the form from any Marine Inspection Office. You may also download a copy of Form CG-5573 from the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety and Environmental Protection web site at http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m.html.
(3) A consortium or other employer representative may submit data for a marine employer. Reports may contain data for more than one marine employer. Each report, however, must list the marine employers included in the report.
(4) Marine employers must ensure that data submitted by a consortium or other employer representative under paragraph (b)(3) of this section is correct.
(c) After filing 3 consecutive annual MIS reports since January 1, 1996, required by paragraph (b) of this section, marine employers with 10 or fewer covered employees may stop filing the annual report each succeeding year during which they have no more than 10 covered employees.
(d) Marine employers who conduct operations regulated by another Department of Transportation Operating Administration must submit appropriate data to that Operating Administration for employees subject to that Operating Administration’s regulations.

Appendix A To Part 16 - [Reserved]

Appendix B To Part 16 (PDF) - Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection

Appendix C To Part 16 - [Removed and Reserved]


Review other important federal regulations.

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